I’ve never had any trouble gluing maple with regular carpenters glues. The yellow and brown formulations are stronger, but that extra strength isn’t often needed. I don’t know why you’re having trouble, except that the area you’re gluing has received a coat of finish. If that’s the case then no glue will hold the furniture together. Cleaning the wood to reveal bare stock will clear the way for solid reassembly.
What kind of glue can be used to glue re-finished antique maple chairs? All types I’ve tried fail. No glue has successfully done the job.